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south africans and british

Colonisation of South Africa

The Dutch

In the 1500s there were 3 main indigenous groups in South Africa. The majority of the population were Bantu speaking that were in the eastern region of South Africa. The other two groups were the San and the Khoikhoi. The San were hunter-gathers from the west. The Khoikhoi raised livestock in the south and west.

The first serious establishment came from the Dutch in 1652, with the arrival of Jan van Riebeeck and ninety employees from the Dutch East India Company. They came well equipped with seeds and tools. To establish vegetable gardens and
a refreshment station, at Table Bay. To give to the passing Dutch ships on the way to India. But too much time onwards the Dutch decided to turn the refreshment stall into a colony because of its increasing population. The khoikhoi refused to trade with the Dutch, they accused them of stealing their animals and vica versa. The Dutch started building buildings that were in the way of the khoikhoi people’s grazing land. Which all led to the first open war in 1659-1660. The local people greatly outnumbered the Dutch, but the way they organised themselves in little clans prevented them in making good use of their numbers. The dutch with their horses and muskets bought new fear to their enemies. The khoikhoi were forced to move further inland, where they now had to compete with the San for land.

Now the disease smallpox had spread from the Europeans to the South Africans, and many died. The Dutch began to bring in slaves; they captured the native khoikhoi and bought them in from Madagascar, Malaysia and other parts of Asia. The settlers also moved onto the San lands, the San tried to resist and fought the Dutch. But the Dutch’s superior technology was too good and the San people were forced to move on. By 1793 the colony ha 13,830 Dutch speaking residents, and 14,747 slaves.

map of South Africa
map of South Africa

The British

By the late 1700s the British navy dominated the world at sea. When they were seeking a safe route to India they captured Cape Town in 1795. With help of the trekboers the British forces drove the indigenous out of the area. This was part of a hard and long time for the blacks in Africa. A long and severe drought occurred around 1800, lots of Africans died of starvation. Wars began to break out between African groups because of the lack of food and water. The large scale devastation from the conflicts between African groups left white settlers the impression that few lived in the eastern region of South Africa. Blacks within cape colony (an area of the east taken over by whites) either lived as slaves or on a very low wage.

In 1834 the British government freed all the slaves in south Africa plus all its other colonies. Despite their freedom the trekboers (indigenous Africans) were angered by this action because they now relied on slavery for the livelihood.

After this the Afrikaans as they now called themselves, left to set up outside of Cape Town. But continued fighting against other African people and the British. In 1880 the first of two Boer ‘freedom’ wars occurred which was known as the "Transvaal War," was a relatively brief conflict in which Boer (Dutch settlers) successfully rebelled against British rule in the Transvaal, and re-established their independence, lost in 1877 when the Boers fought the British in order to regain the independence they had given up to obtain British help against the Zulus (Africans)

The Second War (1899-1902), by contrast, was a lengthy war - involving large numbers of troops from many British possessions - which ended with the conversion of the Boer republics into British colonies. These colonies later formed part of the union of South Africa . The Boer War lasted three years and was very bloody. The British fought directly against the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The bloodshed that was seen during the war was alarming. Factors that contributed to this were: many of the British soldiers were physically unprepared for the environment and poorly trained for the conditions they faced. As a result, British losses were high as a result of both disease and combat.

The death toll from the boer wars were high, 5,774 british were killed in battle, 16,168 british died of disease and wounds in total 66,000 people died.

Still today there is lots of racsim and violence in South Africa between the blacks and the whites. Typically because the whites are "richer" than the blacks. today there is lots of poverty in South Africa, but everyone in the World is trying to Help them prevent poverty. They are slowly working there way into the World, being united.

Fenwick, J.. South Africa: from Settlement to Self-Determination. Southern Boekuitgewers: Oxford University Press Southern Africa, 1991. Print.
Roberts, Martin. A History of South Africa (Longman History Studies in Depth). Edinburgh: Longman Group United Kingdom, 1991. Print.
Smith, Chris. Conflict in Southern Africa. East sussex: Wayland, 1992. Print.

"Boer War." Australian War Memorial. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/boer.asp>.

Chandler McNeary 9.2