History of Native Americans

The indigenous population of what is now called “The United States of America” are the American Indians. The history of the Native Americans is in many ways interesting and tragic. There were approximately 10 – 90 million Native Americans at the time of arrival of the English. It is thought that the Native Americans during the ice age moved south down from Siberia through north America and even as far as Mexico. They were labelled “Indians” but now prefer to be called “Native Americans.”


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European Colonisation

The European colonization of the Americas forever changed the lives and cultures of the Native Americans. In the 15th to 19th centuries, their populations were ravaged by the disease, and in many cases by warfare with European groups and enslavement by them. The first Native American group encountered by Columbus, the 250,000 Arawaks of Haiti, were enslaved. Out of the 250,000, only 500 survived by the year 1550, and the group was extinct before 1650.
During the 15th century Spaniards and other Europeans introduced horses to the Americas. Some of these animals escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild. Ironically, the horse had originally evolved in the Americas, but the last American horses, (species Equus Scotti and others) died out at the end of the last ice age. This new mode of travel made it possible for some tribes to greatly expand their territories and exchange goods with neighbouring tribes.



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European Impacts

Europeans also brought diseases against which the Native Americans had no immunity. Chicken pox and measles, though common and rarely fatal among Europeans, often proved fatal to Native Americans, and more dangerous diseases such as smallpox were especially deadly to Native American populations. It is difficult to estimate the total percentage of the Native American population killed by these diseases.
Epidemics were often immediately followed European exploration, sometimes destroying entire villages. Some historians estimate that up to 80% of some Native populations may have died due to European diseases.


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Treatment of Native Americans

At first the Native Americans were delighted with the arrival of the white settlers due to the fact that they introduced new and exciting technologies such as, steel cutlery and new methods of fishing and housing. Without the aid of the Native Americans the Settlers would not have survived the first weeks on the new land. But this later turned ugly, the Europeans started to disregard all respect the Native Americans had for the land, and started to pursue their main objective, to conquer the land for the commonwealth. They achieved this goal through brutal attacks and invasions.

Some of the outcomes were…

· Enslavement
· Some diseases that killed the abdominals includes Small pox, Cholera and yellow fever.
· The Indian Citizen Act of 1924 offered official citizenship to the Native American tribes. Such as assimilation.
· The Native Americans have suffered tremendously from the plagues of alcoholism and suicide. These were once a vibrant and resourceful people. They have been robbed, humiliated, and removed from all they knew.



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America Nowdays


There are 563 Tribal Laws in the United States. The United States recognizes the right of these tribes to self-government and supports their tribal sovereignty and self-determination. These tribes also posses the right to form their own government; to enforce laws, both civil and criminal and to exclude persons from tribal territories. Some of the native americans have joined into schools, and found jobs after university. The native americans mainly live in three states, California, Arazona Okahama. In 2003 there are still 2,786,652 native Americans left in America.
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BiblioGRAPHY
Works Cited
"Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia."

Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://school.eb.com.au/all/comptons/article-9275046?query=american%20indians&ct=>."Native American History." History - AllAboutHistory.org.

N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.allabouthistory.org/native-american-history.htm>.
"Native Americans." Crystalinks Metaphysical and Science Website. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2010. http://www.crystalinks.com/nativeamericans.html

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"Native Americans in the United States - European colonization." Spiritus-Temporis.com - Historical Events, Latest News, News Archives. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/native-americans-in-the-united-states/european-colonization.html>. MLA formatting by BibMe.org.